Research Papers

A brief summary of holistic wellness literature

Gord Miller and Leslie T Foster

This article is a summary of current holistic wellness literature, involving online database keyword searches, additional searches for other studies, screening of abstracts, assessing the relevance to the review and integrating the findings.

More than 300 journal articles, books and websites were examined or accessed to determine how wellness was defined and to find research and wellness mode.


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Neurofeedback as a Treatment Intervention in ADHD: Current Evidence and Practice

Stefanie Enriquez-Geppert, Diede Smit, Miguel Garcia Pimenta, and Martijn Arns

Similar to many of his 9-year-old school peers, Brian was put on psychostimulants after complaints of poor concentration and impulsivity that met ADHD diagnostic criteria.

Despite a remarkable improvement in his academic performance, parent and teachers noticed a reduction in appetite and weight loss after the onset of the medication.

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Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications

Hengameh Marzbani, Hamid Reza Marateb, and Marjan Mansourian

Neurofeedback is not a new concept. It has been the subject of the study of researchers for several decades. Neurofeedback is a method that assists subjects to control their brain waves consciously. In fact, the electroencephalography (EEG) is recorded during the neurofeedback treatment.

Then, its various components are extracted and fed to subjects using online feedback loop in the form of audio, video or their combination.

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What is Mindfulness?

Mindfulness has become something of a buzzword recently, but the term describes a simple concept. Mindfulness is the state of being fully present and calmly aware of the thoughts, emotions, and sensations you experience from one moment to the next. The goal is to do this curiously and without judgment or attachment to any particular feelings or outcomes.

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Research behind Neurofeedback for ADHD
The impact of neurofeedback on ADHD has been studied the most among all neurofeedback therapies. Many studies have been published over the years, we chose few recent ones to show you:
102 children aged 8-12 with an ADHD diagnosis were randomly assigned in two groups- one group did 36 neurofeedback sessions, the other did 36 sessions of computerized attention skills training game.

Improvements in the neurofeedback group were superior to the control group. The findings indicated that “neurofeedback effects are substantial and of practical importance. Our results confirm findings of previous neurofeedback studies even under strict control conditions.” The researchers concluded the result “indicates clinical efficacy of neurofeedback in children with ADHD”.

Gevensleben, H., Holl, B., Albrecht, B.,Vogel, C., Schlamp, D., et al. (2009). Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD?: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 780–789
130 children diagnosed with ADHD aged 6-18 were randomly assigned into 3 groups – one received neurofeedback, one received medication (methylphenidate), one received both neurofeedback and medication.

The researchers conclude that “NF produced a significant improvement in the core symptoms of ADHD, which was equivalent to the effects produced by MPH (methylphenidate), based on parental reports. This supports the use of NF as an alternative therapy for children and adolescents with ADHD.”

Duric NS, Assmus J, Gundersen DI, ElegenIB. (2012). Neurofeedback for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD: A randomized and controlled clinical trial using parental reports. BMC Psychiatry, 12:107
American Academy of Paediatrics rated neurofeedback as a Level 1 “Best Support” Intervention for ADHD. This is highest possible rating and at the same level as medication treatment and behavioural therapy.
104 children were randomly assigned to receive NF (neurofeedback), cognitive training or a control condition. They were also evaluated 6 months post-intervention.

"Neurofeedback participants made more prompt and greater improvements in ADHD symptoms, which were sustained at the 6-month follow-up, than did CT participants or those in the control group. This finding suggests that neurofeedback is a promising attention training treatment for children with ADHD.”

Naomi J. Steiner, Elizabeth C. Frenette, Kirsten M. Rene, Robert T. Brennan and Ellen C. PerrinIn-School Neurofeedback Training for ADHD: Sustained Improvements From Randomized Controlled Trial; Paediatrics


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